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Short Questions
Sociology 8 Pages

Short Questions


Part I. Short Questions  

1.Outline the four conceptualizations of corporate control. Discuss the idea of "social control" as a new conceptualization of corporate control. (200 words)

2.You are consulted by Indiana University to help improve the innovativeness of the undergraduate students. What suggestions do you have? [Hint: Social networks, innovation and diffusion, ecology and niche, and the 70-20-10 rule.] (200words)

3.Explain the strength of weak state. How does it affect diversity programs? [Hint: See slides on “Equality and Diversity”.] 

4.Why are organizations similar but not exactly the same? [Hint: isomorphism and decoupling] 

5.Use IU as an example to illustrate the three forms of imprinting.(200words)

Part II. Case Analysis on Close Competitions  

Many competitions are close competitions. Here are a few examples.

6.  Business: Fujifilm vs. Kodak, Pepsi vs. Coca-Cola, Toyota vs. Ford vs. GM; 

7.  Presidential elections: John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson in 1796, Rutherford Hayes vs. 
Samuel Tilden in 1876, Kennedy vs. Nixon in 1960, Al Gore vs. GW Bush in 2000; 

8.  Sports: Lakers vs. Celtics in the 1980s, and Red Sox vs. Yankees; 

9.  States: Athens vs. Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, and U.S. vs. USSR during the cold war. 

1.Based on the above examples, please provide a short definition of close competitions and list the features that distinguish them from other competitions? (200 words) 

2.Read the case on cola wars and answer the following questions. (1)Evolving structures (100 words)
List the four types of participants in the cola industry. What are the relations among 

them? Why do Coke and Pepsi sometimes want to have full control of the bottling networks while other times not? What are the benefits and drawbacks of doing so?

(2)Competitive dynamics (100 words)

Between Coke and Pepsi, who won the wars in 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s? For each period, list two strategies by Coke or Pepsi that significantly affected their competitive advantages? What roles do imitations and innovations play in the competitions? What consequences of the cola wars are on smaller concentrate producers and bottlers?

(3)Potential challenges (100 words)

What were the challenges to the profitability of Coke and Pepsi since mid 1990s? What measures did they take to address these challenges? Were they successful? In the future, how can they perpetuate their advantages in new markets? Do they need a second foundation and how to do that? Who currently looks more likely to win the cola wars?

3.Find another example of close competitions (except the above ones and the HBS cases used in class) and provide a summary. (200 words) 

4.What conclusions would you draw for wining close competitions? These conclusions should be general, comprehensive, and supported by both theories and examples. [Hint: consult the theories and cases we have studied on structure, leadership, innovation, network, culture, embeddedness, ecology, contingency, etc.] (300 words) 


Title: Short Questions
Length: 8 pages (2200 Words)
Style: N/A


Part I. Short Questions

 Outline the four conceptualizations of corporate control. Discuss the idea of "social control" as a new conceptualization of corporate control. (200 words)

 The four concepts of corporate controlinclude direct control, manufacturing control, sales and marketing control and finance control (Kreiner, 1991). The earliest of them all is direct control developed at the end of 19th Century. Its development was an attempt by established firms and industries to stabilize destructive swings and fluctuating factors in the cycle of business (Kreiner, 1991). 


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