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Health Care in the United States of America

Health Care In The United States Of America


The Final Research Article (FRA) asks you to put forward and support an academic argument related to your narrowed social science topic. The intention of the research process has been for you to make an original contribution by having you work on a single topic throughout the quarter. In the FRA you will put the pieces together from previous assignments, including revised versions of your Background Essay (BE) and Literature Review (LR), but you will also add new material. 

Throughout the research and writing process of previous assignments up till this point, I asked you not to put forth your own opinions or viewpoints but to focus on reporting information and the analyses and conclusions of other scholars. The FRA is the place where you will showcase and present your own insights, interpretations, and viewpoints (though you will still not state your “opinion,” a word that indicates a personal view that may or may not be rigorously supported). Here are the new elements you will be adding in the FRA: 

Your Argument: 

As described in The Craft of Research (chapters 7-11), your academic argument should include the following elements: a main claim, reasons, evidence, acknowledgments, and responses; an explicit discussion of warrants (often unstated assumptions, values and principles) is optional. Although you are likely to include a great number of observations, interpretations and insights throughout your essay, your main claim will be a response to your research question. In a large sense, the originality and significance of your overall contribution to the shared scholarly understanding of your topic will depend on the originality and signifiance of your research question. 

Revising the Research Question: In your Literature Review you presented what had already been researched and published by scholars on your narrowed topic and related issues. By the conclusion of that essay, you were supposed to develop an original research question based on the gaps in the knowledge, namely, what you discovered had not been adequately researched or understood by those scholars. You may find that you need to revise the formulation of your research question again now that you are actually trying to answer or address it in the FRA. See CR, chapters 3-4.***Again, do not choose a research question (or main claim) that takes a yes/no, good/bad, for/against, pro/con, either/or, or right/wrong form, nor should your research question or claim attempt to solve a problem or predict the future or merely provide information. Instead develop a question that explores and explains cause-effect relationships; non-obvious connections and consequences; complexities in identities, definitions or categorization; the effectiveness of past programs or initiatives; challenges in managing issues; political differences; etc. Working through the questions on The Politics of Research webpage with regard to your own topic may also spark some new ideas for possible research questions. 

Developing a claim: Try to come up with a one-sentence answer to the research question from the conclusion of your Literature Review, which will be the main claim in your academic argument. If you can't imagine what a good one-sentence answer to the research question would look and sound like, consider refining or revising the question further. Since you will not be conducting an original research study, your one-sentence answer will emerge from new articles as well as from the analysis and evolving understanding you have been developing with regard to your topic all quarter. Your goal is to support, not prove, your main claim with reasons, evidence, acknowledgments, and responses. Consider your main claim as your supported interpretation rather than an opinion. If you are having a difficult time coming up with a research question, you can begin by trying to list all of the insights, interpretations, and connections you came up with as you read through various articles and websites throughout the quarter. What claims do you feel are able to make regarding your narrowed topic. Which of the claims appear significant and original? You can work backwards from a main claim to a research question as well (like in Jeopardy). More Research: You need a total minimum of 15 sources for the FRA, so keep on browsing, surfing, researching, and asking questions. 

You need the following four new source types for the FRA: at least one organizational (*.org) website and one governmental (*.gov) website; one documentary, television program, or radio program; and one article from Rereading America. In developing your argument and trying to support an answer (main claim) to your original research question in the FRA, you will of course draw upon your Background Essay and Literature Review. However, the way in which you have narrowed your topic and the questions you are now asking may have gone through substantial changes as you moved through the various assignments, so you might also end up having to do new background research or to find new scholarly articles/chapters for the literature review section of the FRA. Organization/Group/Program/Agency/Department Profile: Identify and profile one entity that is doing work in relation to your narrowed topic and research question. More details available below.Required Elements of the Final Research Article Length: 3000-3750 words (12-15 pages of text, not including the cover page or the pages for the abstract, references, illustrations, or appendices)

Coversheet & Title: Include the title, your name, the course number, instructor name, and date on the coversheet (see a handbook or website on APA document format). Your title should be narrow rather than broad, and should reflect your research question or hypothesis; therefore, don't choose a title as broad as "Gun Control" (which is one of our prohibited topics anyway!). Spend some time developing a title that is interesting, informative and/or innovative, perhaps a two-part title that includes a subtitle. See CR, p. 248.

Abstract (include section heading): On a new page after the cover page, center the word Abstract on the top of this page and then begin the abstract paragraph on the next line. Write a one-paragraph summary (150-200 words) of your research paper with the following items: your narrowed topic; the context for your inquiry (such as a problem or debate you are addressing); your original research question and main claim; and, finally, a brief statement about the significance of your overall argument and research project. (See CR, pp. 211-212; again, don’t use “I” or other forms of first person in the abstract or anywhere else in the FRA.) 

Introduction (no section heading needed): Include the title of your essay again on the first page of your essay (after the Abstract page); it should be centered on the top of the page; begin the text on the next line. While your introductory section may be one or more paragraphs long (probably not more than two), pay special attention to your very first paragraph, which should capture your reader's attention (while remaining academic and professional rather than sensationalist, overly sentimental or melodramatic). See CR, Ch. 16, "Introductions and Conclusions" (pp. 232-247). Your introductory section should clearly state your original research question and main claim. This section can also include an explanation of the relevance or significance of the issues and/or a brief discussion of what led you to formulate your question (without using “I” or other forms of first person).

Background Section (include section heading; additional subheadings may be useful): This section is the revision of your Background Essay (probably excluding the introduction and conclusion of that earlier essay). Note that revision can mean omitting, expanding or condensing what you wrote earlier, as well as adding new relevant information and subtopics that you hadn't included at all in the earlier assignment. Again, the following elements are suitable for this section: relevant history, laws and policies, statistics, problems, stakeholders, organizations, programs, debates, definitions, and other related contexts, etc. Organization/Group/Program/Agency/Department Profile (include section heading; should be at least one page of new writing): Identify and profile one entity that is doing work in relation to your narrowed topic and research question. Describe their objectives, services, and actions in relation to a particular problem. Which group(s), if any, is the entity trying to serve and/or call to action? What are the entity’s message and target audience(s)? As much as possible and relevant, investigate, evaluate, and comment on their history, funding, organizational structure, stakeholders, politics, biases, successes, and limitations. If possible, conduct an interview with a member of the organization, which may appear in an Appendix. Make use of at least two sources to build your profile, at least one of which should be independent of the entity itself. Your profile should also inform your Original Argument.

Literature Review (include section heading; include subheadings for summary and discussion/evaluation of sources): This is the section in which you report on the relevant research and writing that other scholars have published in scholarly articles and chapters (see the Scholarly Sources webpage). While you should plan on using what you can from your earlier Literature Review essay, you may need to revise what you wrote there since your research question may have changed, and you will have looked at many new sources; while you will still need an introductory paragraph for this section, a revised version of the conclusion from the Literature Review essay should move to the beginning of your Original Argument section. Again, note that the summary paragraphs of the literature review section should be divided according to issue rather than one for each source; describe what the authors of your scholarly articles have researched, reported, argued or concluded. In the discussion/evaluation section, help us understand the commonalities and differences among scholars, including their questions, methods, assumptions, priorities, etc.; and give your evaluation of these sources, including their strengths or usefulness as well as their weaknesses or limitations. (Make sure that your literature review includes an adequate and representative range of scholarly views; one of the most damaging mistakes you can make for your credibility is to reveal that you are not familiar with some important and relevant arguments or studies in your field of specialization.) 

Your Original Argument (include section heading; should be at least three pages of new writing): Begin this section with your own original research question along with its justification (may be a revised version of your concluding paragraph from your Literature Review essay), which should emerge out of the scholarly sources in the lit review section, especially those areas or questions that you believe have not yet been adequately addressed or answered. The overall purpose of the FRA is to support your main interpretive claim, the answer to your original research question. In presenting your argument, make sure you are engaging in dialogue with and building upon your 15+ sources. If you agree with one or more of them, how are you taking the discussion further? If you disagree with one or more of them, why is that? Pay attention to CR, Chs. 7-11 to understand the different elements of a solid, academic argument, including your claim, reasons, evidence, acknowledgments, responses, and relevant warrants. How do your research question and main claim connect to larger issues or debates within the field? Acknowledge and respond to possible questions and reasonable objections that readers might raise to different aspects of your argument. While you may not be able to anticipate every possible objection, consider questions a skeptic might ask to challenge your positions. Be honest and fair in how you respond to questions or possible opposing views, and be willing to acknowledge questions you can’t answer or limit the certainty of your claims if appropriate. 

Conclusion (include section heading): Synthesize (do not summarize!) the main information, explanations, debates and argument that your paper has offered. Restate, in different words to avoid repetition, your original research question and main claim. What is the significance of the work you have done, the research you've uncovered, the questions you’ve asked, and the arguments you have made? This is the famous "So what?" question (also see The Politics of Research webpage). Your conclusion should give your reader reasons to continue thinking about your essay and its arguments. For example, you can offer suggestions for further research, which refers to new questions or directions that other researchers might wish to pursue based on the work you have done. 

References (include section heading): You need a minimum of 15 sources (see next section for more details). Begin a new page with the word References centered on the top of the first page of the list of sources that you quoted or cited. Each source should appear in APA format, which means that you have to pay attention to details of punctuation, indentation, spacing, capitalization, italics/underlining, sequencing, etc. Because it is very difficult to memorize all of the detailed conventions of citation, refer often to either your handbook or other web-based resources for determining correct APA format. Your References pages should follow the numbering of the entire manuscript; if your last page of writing falls on page 15, then the first page of your references would be page 16.

Appendices: Include any supporting materials such as archival material, statistics, graphs, expert interviews, survey results, etc. in an appendix If you have more than one Appendix, use letters to differentiate them: Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. Please limit the overall file size of your document to 4 MB since larger ones may overload my email server.

Quotations & Paraphrases: Include at least one direct quotation from all 15 of your sources, though you may refer to (cite) them in other instances without quoting them; you also may cite additional sources (if you have more than 15) without quoting from them (include the page or paragraph numbers for all of your parenthetical in-text citations). Follow proper APA format for incorporating quotations and citations in the body of your paper, paying attention to punctuation, quotation marks, parenthetical information, block quotations for long passages, etc. All quotations and citations should be set up and interpreted so that their relevance to your own point and analysis is clear. Do not quote merely to provide information or to avoid doing analysis yourself.

APA Format: In addition to the requirements for citing your references, you may want to review the other aspects of APA format in your handbook or elsewhere, including the conventions for coversheet, titles, location of page numbers, abbreviated title in the header, etc. Section Headings: Given that this is a relatively long essay, you should have section headings for different parts of your paper for the sake of clarity and to avoid exhausting the attention span of your readers; section headings also serve as very obvious and visible transitions. At the very least, you need to have the following headings: Background, Literature Review, Argument, and Conclusion. Some sections may even have subheadings (whose format should be distinguished from the main headings, e.g., underline vs. bold or italics vs. underline and bold, etc.). Think of section headings as mini-titles, which means that you may even wish to develop some creative subtitles for the various section headings. 

Audience & Style: As with the other major essays for this course, think of your audience as made up of fellow researchers, NOT the general public. Your purpose in this essay is not merely to inform or persuade, but to add to the scholarly understanding of your (narrowed) topic. Do not use “I,” “me” or other forms of first person voice in this paper. The only exception is if you are describing personal experience as evidence to support a conclusion you are drawing; however, be aware of the problems in relying too heavily upon your personal experience to draw broader conclusions about social issues. Since you are writing for an academic audience, use formal language (without being artificially inflated or stuffy). Therefore, also do not use “you” (second person voice). Remember that you are trying to establish authority and inspire trust in your readers that you are a credible commentator and analyst of the important issues and questions you are addressing.Required Sources See the Holman Library Class Guide for this course. Even though you have already made use of at least ten relevant sources related to your topic for the Background Essay and the Literature Review, be on the lookout for any and all relevant sources with regard to your topic and research question since you never know where you might find a useful bit of information or a new perspective or angle that triggers your own thinking. Again, keep in mind the difference between sources that merely give you information, like encyclopedia entries, websites with statistics, etc., vs. those that are engaged in analysis and argument. Be alert for these different purposes and approaches in the additional sources you seek for the FRA. At least 15 sources are required from the following categories (most of you will end up with more): § Two or more websites: You need at least one organizational (*.org) website and one governmental (*.gov) website. 

You can specify domains such as .org or .gov from the Advanced Search screen of Google: A newspaper or newswire article you find on the internet does not count.§ Documentary, TV or radio program: Use the library catalog to find documentaries at GRCC. The UW Libraries also have a vast selection of documentaries. Search online for relevant radio segments on Democracy Now! as well as such National Public Radio programs as Fresh Air and This American Life. Also see Google Video,, and TV news stories that you find online do not count. Look for§ Essay from Rereading America: You must cite at least one essay from our anthology of readings. Even if you can't find an article directly related to your topic, you should be able to make a connection between a research question or method in an article from RA and your own paper. § Online or print reference: CQ Researcher, Credo Reference, Encyclopedias (e.g., Britannica, etc.), social science textbooks, print materials from a library’s Reference section, etc. 

You may not use Wikipedia as one of your sources, though you may consult the References section of a Wikipedia article to locate other relevant sources. Dictionary entries do not count. § Book or book chapter: Use the online library catalog to access GRCC’s holdings as well as electronic books that you can read directly from your computer. Also look for books via WorldCat, King County Library, UW Libraries, and Use the Inter-Library Loan service to have GRCC get books for you that Holman Library doesn’t own. Avoid the "Opposing Viewpoints" series of books for this source type, though they may give you an idea of the range of views and controversies on a particular topic. § Two magazine articles: Try out a variety of search terms in ProQuest or Academic Search Premier to find relevant and substantial articles (should be longer than 1000 words); use the tabs at the top of the search results (the list of article links) to sort and view only the magazine articles. Online magazine articles are also acceptable.§ Five or more scholarly sources: These are the sources that you should have used for your Literature Review essay (which becomes one of the sections in the FRA). 

Again, a scholarly source can be from a "peer-reviewed" journal or can appear as a chapter in a scholarly book (published by a university press). Note that a scholarly book, designed to be read by experts, is not the same as a textbook, designed to be read by students. At least four of your scholarly articles should be from four different scholarly sources. Again, go back to the electronic database Academic Search Premier available through the Holman Library webpage (check the box for “Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals” from the main search screen) or try Google Scholar.Recency: At least three of your sources need to be no older than three years. Other optional source types: Other relevant source types that you may run across include newspaper articles; alternative media; pamphlets; conference proceedings; informational flyers; and primary sourcesPrimary sources: These can include raw statistics, interviews, archives, case studies, survey results, etc.; archival material can include, for example, government documents from the 19th century, a review of newspaper coverage of World War II by actually looking at newspapers from the period, etc..


Title: Health Care In The United States Of America
Length: 10 pages (2750 Words)
Style: APA


Health Care in the United States of America


Health care and the improvement of it has been an issue that numerous campaigns, over the years, have attempted to solve. Health care in America has been a contentious issue that has been viewed in so many dimensions; politically, socially and economically, yet no success story is well in sight. Americans have a right to health care regardless of their race, location, religion, creed or financial status. That being said, this paper serves as a final research article for the topic of healthcare in the United States of America. The paper focuses on the grieve issues facing this sector and the delivery of services in this sector. The paper is a wholesome research process that is meant at uncovering the underlying issues, which make it difficult for issues pertaining to healthcare in the United States to be solved. The paper will also carry out a review on literature by different scholars who have attempted to look into the issue in the past.


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